Indo-European Root Words–Translation and Metaphor–pt. 2c-Verbs

Wow… It is hot today.. and I’ve finally gotten to a point where I have a free hour to try and bang out this final part of the Indo-European Root Words that I’ve analyzed.

Interestingly enough, there are more verbs (79) than either the Nouns(62) or modifiers (35), but they tend to fall under two “Main” categories (Body and Culture/Technology), with a number of possible sub-groupings within those two areas.

First, however, I should note that there are a few verbs that are solely nature related.  These are:
to shine –> bleach, blue, blond
to fly –> feather
to dry –> to sear
to melt –> to thaw
to sprout –> Wiese (German for Meadow)

However, beyond this smaller category, the two larger categories have a good number of expressions that have mutated in interesting ways while remaining part of our vocabulary.  As in previous posts–like here and here–I have made up these categorizations and don’t see them as definitive per se, but rather more as one possible way of structuring these words.   In any case–here are the words:

Body Verbs

Body-Function:
to scratch –> to carve
to devour –> Koeder (German for Lure)
to vomit –> to reek
to urinate, sprinkle –> mash, mist, mischen (to mix up in German)
to breathe –> to sneeze
to spit –> to spew
to blow –> weather, wind
to blow, inspire –> Wood, Wotan, WEDNESday, Wut(German for rage)
to hear  –> loud
to see, know –> wit, wissen (to know in German–part of Wissenschaft=Knowledge-scape==science)

Body-Communication:
to call –> to yell
to laugh –> to smirk
to remember –> to mourn
to sound –> swan
to speak –> erWAEHNen (German for “to mention”)
to speak –> word
to joke –> glee
to ask –> to bid, bead (Gebet=prayer (like prayer bead) in German)

Body-Control
to place/set –> to do
to take –> to give
to take –> to beget, forget, get
to press, strike, slay, kill –> bane
to snatch –> to reap
to hit –> fluke, Fluch (a curse in German)
to pluck –> fee, Vieh (Cattle in German)
to hold –> Sieg (Victory in German–part of the name Siegfried==victory-peace)
to wish, desire, want –> to will, wollen (==to want in German)

Body-Movement
to straighten –> right
to run –> horse
to lie, settle –> home
to leave –> to lend
to jump –> lark
to jump –> frog
to open arms –> fathom, Faden (thread in German)
to stride, to step –> stair, steigen (to climb in German)

Body-State-change
to wake/rise up –> to bid/bode
to appear, become, rise up –> to be
to live –> quick
to increase –> to eke, to wax
to protrude –> arse
to die –> murder (and through latin, you would get mortal..)
to be able –> may, might
to be ill –> sorrow
to engage onself –> to play, plight, pflegen (to care for in German), pflicht (Duty in German)

The second big category are culture/technology words.

Culture-Technology: preparation/making
to boil –> breath, broth, brew, braten (German for to broil–part of Bratwurst)
to burn –> day
to mold –> dough
to burn –> ember
to mix –> rare
to pour, wash –> lather
to break –> Luecke (hole/gap in German)
to measure, consider –> to mete, empty, messen (to measure in German)
to grind, rub, break up –> meal (corn meal..)
to cover –> to thatch
to spin –> needle
to press –> threat
to twist –> to thwart
to boil, to foam –> yeast

Culture/Technology–Social relations
to lead –> to tow
to deceive –> dream
to join, unite –> good
to be master of, to possess –> ought, to owe, own
to like –> free, friend
to plait –> rush
to follow –> to see
to pledge –> to wed
to dress –> to wear
to ride –> to weigh (think about “to weigh anchor”), way, bewegen (to move in German)
to hide/protect –> to bury
to acquire –> loan
to change, exchange –> mean/common
to allot/distribute –> numb, nimble, nehmen (to take in German)
to protect –> fodder

As always–it’s interesting to me to see how these words have mutated (or not).. Some of them did not change that much… going from “to acquire” to loan is somewhat the reverse meaning–but still involves the acquisition and possession of some material thing..  Likewise–the change from “to grind” –> meal, or “to pledge” –> wed are pretty straightforward changes.

On the other hand, there are also some gems in here.  The fact that “to deceive” became “to dream” actually shows something about how these groups connected reality with their own ability to perceive it.   Similarly, how “to see” became “to know” (wit, in English–which also used to be a verb “to wit” …) and “to follow” became “to see” (which also shows up in latin in the word “sequence”…) also show interesting relationships in this manner.

And now.. I will stop–because it is just too damn hot today, and I think it is more interesting to allow any readers to make up their own conclusions…

Hopefully soon, I’ll some more thoughts about MBTI to offer here.. if I can find the time..

 

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About Prof. Woland

I contain multitudes. Come meet us.
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